¿QUÉ ES LA COMISIÓN TRILATERAL?
“Una de las instituciones más
poderosas y de la que apenas se
habla es la Comisión Trilateral”.
¿Quién gobierna en verdad el mundo? se plantea altermundismo, que nos explica que los poderes ejecutivos nacionales han perdido su capacidad de decisión política y se han convertido en meros gestores administrativos.
Quién gobierna, entonces, el mundo. No basta decir simplemente las multinacionales pues por muy grandiosa que sea su influencia, en la sociedad actual siguen siendo necesarias ciertas instituciones que dicten reglas (se cumplan o no) para repartirse el pastel económico.
Cuando se realizó hace alrededor de una década la campaña “Cincuenta años bastan” se señalaba a las instituciones de Bretton Woods:
1*Fondo Monetario Internacional
(http://www.bancomundial.org/ ) como regidoras del mundo- la
3*Organización Mundial de Comercio
(http://www.wto.org/indexsp.htm ) nacería poco después.
Acababa de caer el bloque socialista y se comenzaba a dibujar lo que se ha llamado el Nuevo Orden Mundial.
Hoy, años después, estas viejas organizaciones internacionales y otras similares han aumentado su influencia vertiginosamente. El movimiento contra la globalización capitalista señala como principales responsables del malestar mundial a las siguientes entidades: FMI, BM, OMC, G8 y Foro Económico Mundial.
De este re-poker, las tres primeras deberían ser las que marcasen las pautas y especialmente la tercera ya que es la que tiene una mayor capacidad coercitiva contra los Estados; también es la más nociva: si por una de esas extrañísimas razones que a veces se dan, el BM o el FMI realizan un proyecto mínimamente humanitario, la OMC ya se encarga de destruirlo.
¿Y por qué deberían ser éstas las directoras de la globalización? Porque dentro de la “lógica” capitalista son las más “democráticas”.
El neoliberalismo, ciertamente, no es democrático y es la capacidad económica
la que dicta la influencia y el dominio de cada persona, país, empresa, etc.
Sin embargo, FMI, BM y OMC pueden aparentar ante la opinión pública mundial que son asamblearistas y que todos sus países miembros tienen igual capacidad de voto y decisión.
Sin embargo, esto ya no es posible con el G8 ni mucho menos con el Foro Económico Mundial.
Es el grupo de los países más industrializados y se trata de una reunión de grandes potencias para repartirse el mundo e imponer su criterio a las demás naciones. Peor aún se nos muestra el caso del Foro Económico Mundial, una reunión de gente rica, simplemente; y si bien no es más que un club de reflexión, es obvia la influencia que ejerce.
Precisamente uno de estos clubs, la Comisión Trilateral, tiene un papel muy destacado en el diseño del orden económico y sin embargo no es citada en medios de comunicación, ni oficiales ni alternativos.
No se organizan grandes marchas de protesta cuando se reúne la Trilteral como ocurre con otras instituciones del neoliberalismo, pasa casi desapercibida a pesar de tener una labor activa, muy activa... Tanto, que el re-poker la puede tener como compañera para formar un sexteto, e incluso podría encabezarlo.
En julio de 1973 nacía oficialmente la Comisión Trilateral tras año y medio de reuniones fomentadas por el Chase Manhattan Bank. Se trataba de una asociación de carácter privado en la que su ideólogo más destacado es :
*Zbigniew Brzezinski ( http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/brzezinski/ ) que la definió como "el conjunto de potencias financieras e intelectuales mayor que el mundo haya conocido nunca".
La Trilateral se articula atendiendo a las zonas geográficas (de ahí su nombre) que rigen el planeta: América del Norte (EE.UU. y Canadá), Europa y Japón.
Cada una de estas divisiones dispone de un Comité Ejecutivo que elabora las “recetas” económicas para su área de influencia.
¿Y el llamado Tercer Mundo?
Ese no tiene ni representación, para los miembros de cada comité es únicamente una zona de pobres aún mayor que la de sus respectivas áreas; de hecho, según el propio Brzezinski, uno del los objetivos de la Comisión es "el establecimiento de un sistema internacional que no pueda verse afectado por los ‘chantajes’ del Tercer Mundo".
Para este grupo de cleptócratas, los países pobres, sangrados por una ominosa deuda externa, no son las víctimas sino los verdugos.
A todas las asambleas de la Trilateral asistió la Unión Soviética sin que esto produjera una perturbación para sus miembros ya que "el gran conjunto económico soviético, donde se afirma la concentración de fuertes unidades de producción que, aunque todavía nacionales, operan con fundamentos y capacidad de acción multinacional". Las multinacionales de la Comisión comerciaron con la URSS de forma masiva incluso en tecnología punta (petroquímica, sistemas electrónicos, equipamiento industrial, etc.) pese a la Guerra Fría; a la larga esto produjo que la economía soviética dependiera
excesivamente de la Comisión.
El pensamiento político y económico de la Trilateral
La Trilateral fue una pionera en lo que se ha llamado pensamiento único y globalización.
En 1975 declaraba en una forma que parecía muy ética y solidaria que:
"La Comisión Trilateral espera que, como feliz resultado de la Conferencia, todos los gobiernos participantes pondrán las necesidades de interdependencia por encima de los mezquinos intereses nacionales o regionales"
. Al año siguiente, el incombustible Brzezinski decía a la prensa: "en nuestros días, el Estado-Nación ha dejado de jugar su papel".
Con mucha mayor crudeza y por tanto con mayor claridadse ha explicado Rockefeller: "De lo que se trata es de sustituir la autodeterminación nacional que se ha practicado durante siglos en el pasado por la soberanía de una elite de técnicos y de financieros mundiales".
Tecnocracia y poder de la oligarquía económica… Por lo menos tenemos que reconocer que es sincero.
¿Un gobierno mundial?
Ciertamente que las decisiones de esta organización no se airean y su impacto mediático es muy discreto pero en absoluto se la puede tildar de cuasi clandestina.
Sus conclusiones se dan a conocer así que no podemos hablar de conspiraciones, gobierno en la sombra, sociedad secreta, etc. Sin embargo, habría que señalar que la Trilateral tiene tendencia a lo esotérico:
El emblema de la Comisión es una circunferencia periférica dividida en tres fragmentos, de cada uno de los cuales parte una flecha que convergen en el centro. Es una copia burda del arcano de la Unidad. ¡¡¡La mística del dinero!!!
“Hoy día, los países de la Trilateral, que representan el 10% de la población mundial, acaparan el 80% de los recursos del planeta”.
¿Quiénes son miembros de la Trilateral?
Para escribir estas líneas quería poner una lista, lo más al día posible, de los miembros de la Trilateral, pero lo más actual que encontré fue de 2006, así que decidí pedirla en la página de la Comisión, además siempre es mejor tenerla de primera mano.
Como todo lo que tiene que ver con esta organización, la información de su Web es escasa.
La página de la entidad sòlo ofrece la relación de los miembros más destacados (presidentes, sus suplentes y el Comité Ejecutivo), sin embargo da la posibilidad de solicitar la lista íntegra por correo electrónico.
Pero tal vez mejor que seguir, sea que me despida y los invite a leer tranquilamente la lista para que saquen Uds. mismos sus conclusiones. Los dejo con lo mejor de lo mejor, un selectísimo grupo de ciudadanos del mundo, alguno de ellos hasta se las da de progresista.
Viendo el abultado número de personajes influyentes que pueden juntarse en una reunión de la Comisión Trilateral, una asamblea del FMI casi parece una fiestecita.
Que esos encuentros pasen tan desapercibidos para que no generen noticias ni protestas hacen que me replantee lo que dije antes: tal vez sí haya que pensar que nos enfrentamos a una asociación cuasi clandestina
THE TRILATERAL COMMISSION
The Trilateral Commission was formed in 1973 by private citizens of Japan, Europe (European Union countries), and North America (United States and Canada) to foster closer cooperation among these core democratic industrialized areas of the world with shared leadership responsibilities in the wider international system. Originally established for three years, our work has been renewed for successive triennia (three-year periods), most recently for a triennium to be completed in 2009.
When the first triennium of the Trilateral Commission was launched in 1973, the most immediate purpose was to draw together—at a time of considerable friction among governments—the highest level unofficial group possible to look together at the key common problems facing our three areas. At a deeper level, there was a sense that the United States was no longer in such a singular leadership position as it had been in earlier post-World War II years, and that a more shared form of leadership—including Europe and Japan in particular—would be needed for the international system to navigate successfully the major challenges of the coming years.
Two strong convictions guide our thinking for the 2006-2009 triennium. First, the Trilateral Commission remains as important as ever in helping our countries fulfill their shared leadership responsibilities in the wider international system and, second, its framework needs to be widened to reflect broader changes in the world. Thus, the Japan Group has become a Pacific Asian Group, and Mexican members have been added to the North American Group. The European Group continues to widen in line with the enlargement of the EU. We are also continuing in this triennium our practice of inviting a number of participants from other key areas.
The “growing interdependence” that so impressed the founders of the Trilateral Commission in the early 1970s is deepening into “globalization.” The need for shared thinking and leadership by the Trilateral countries, who (along with the principal international organizations) remain the primary anchors of the wider international system, has not diminished but, if anything, intensified. At the same time, their leadership must change to take into account the dramatic transformation of the international system. As relations with other countries become more mature—and power more diffuse—the leadership tasks of the original Trilateral countries need to be carried out with others to an increasing extent.
The members of the Trilateral Commission are about 350 distinguished leaders in business, media, academia, public service (excluding current national Cabinet Ministers), labor unions, and other non-governmental organizations from the three regions. The regional Chairmen, Deputy Chairmen, and Directors constitute the leadership of the Trilateral Commission, along with an Executive Committee including about 40 other members.
The annual meeting of Trilateral Commission members rotates among the three regions. It was held in Tokyo in 2006, Washington in 2005, and Warsaw in 2004. The 2007 plenary will be held in Brussels. The agendas for these meetings have addressed a wide range of issues, an indication of how broadly we see the partnership among our countries. Presentations from these meetings have been published in the Commission's (Trialogue) series and/or posted under Recent Activity on this web site.
The project work of the Trilateral Commission generally involves teams of authors from our three regions working together for a year or so on draft reports which are discussed in draft form in the annual meeting and then published. The authors typically consult with many others in the course of their work. The task force reports (Triangle Papers) to the Trilateral Commission have covered a wide range of topics.
The regional groups within the Trilateral Commission carry on some activities of their own. The European Group, with its secretariat based in Paris, has an annual weekend meeting each fall. The North American Group, with its secretariat based in Washington D.C. began North American regional meetings in 2002 and occasionally gathers with a special speaker for a dinner or luncheon event. The new Pacific Asian Group, with its secretariat based in Tokyo, began regional meetings in 2000. Each region carries on its own fund-raising to provide the financial support needed for the Trilateral Commission’s work.
When the Trilateral Commission was first launched, the plan was for an equal number of members from each of the three regions. The numbers soon began to grow, and ceilings were imposed about 1980. These ceilings have been raised somewhat since then as new countries came to be represented in the groups. The European group, which includes members from Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Cyprus, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, now has a ceiling of 160 members. The ceiling for the North American group is 120, including 20 Canadian members, 13 Mexican members and 87 U.S. members. In 2000, the Japanese group of 85 members expanded to become a Pacific Asian group of 96 members, and includes 57 members from Japan, 15 members from Korea, 8 from Australia and New Zealand, 16 from the original five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand). The new Pacific Asian group also includes participants from the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
To help preserve the Commission’s unofficial character, members who take up positions in their national administration give up Trilateral Commission membership. New members are chosen on a national basis. The procedures used for rotation off and for invitation of new members vary from national group to national group. Three Chairmen (one from each region), Deputy Chairmen, and Directors constitute the leadership of the Trilateral Commission, along with an Executive Committee including 36 other members. The full membership list is available by e-mail or by contacting any of the regional offices.
Chairmen, Deputy Chairmen and Directors
North American Chairman: THOMAS
North American Director: MICHAEL J. O’NEIL
Former Japanese Chairmen:
Stelios Argyros, Chairman and Managing Director, Preveza Mills, Athens; former
Member of the European Parliament; former Vice President, UNICE, Brussels;
former President and Chairman of the Board, Federation of Greek Industries
Recent Activity & Upcoming Events
American Regional Meeting of the Trilateral Commission
Regional Meeting of the Trilateral Commission
Annual Meeting of the Trilateral Commission
Trialogue/Annual Meeting Publications
A Trilateral Commission Task Force project typically involves a team of authors from our three regions working together for a year or so on a report which is discussed in draft form in the annual meeting and then published. Such a report permits more intensive consideration of a particular set of issues (more intensive than a single session at an annual meeting). It allows us to draw many other persons into our work, including persons from non-Trilateral countries—sometimes as authors or commentators in an annual meeting, more often as consultants along the way as the authors prepare their reports. These reports allow the careful preparation of joint policy recommendations by a Trilateral team, and the published reports are circulated widely.
Over the years these projects have covered a wide range of topics, a reflection of the broad purposes we see for the partnership among the Trilateral countries. Some reports have focused on a particular country or region—such as the 1994 report on An Emerging China in a World of Interdependence, the 1995 report on Engaging Russia, the 1997 report on Community-Building with Pacific Asia, the 1998 report on Advancing Common Purposes in the Broad Middle East, the 2000 report on The New Central Asia: In Search of Stability, and the 2001 report on East Asia and the International System. Some reports have focused on aspects of managing the international economy or political/security challenges. The 1996 report on Maintaining Energy Security in a Global Context blends issues of international economic management with crucial security and broad political challenges. The 1996 report on Globalization and Trilateral Labor Markets: Evidence and Implications cuts across domestic and international concerns. The Commission’s need to re-examine its basic framework and approach to the broad international system led to the 1997 set of essays entitled Managing the International System Over the Next Ten Years and a 1999 report was 21st Century Strategies of the Trilateral Countries: In Concert or Conflict?.
The topics for projects are chosen by the Chairmen, Deputy Chairmen, and Directors, with the advice of the Executive Committee and others. Authors are then invited, sometimes from the Commission membership. The authors do not relocate to the offices of the Commission while preparing their report. They remain in their existing institutional settings, and the Commission enables them to meet with each other and various consultants along the way. The reports are to the Trilateral Commission, not of the Commission. The membership of the Commission is too diverse to achieve detailed agreement quickly on a controversial set of issues; and on a few occasions a summary of discussion in the annual meeting has been added to a report to detail the controversy it created.
North American Chairman: Thomas
North American Deputy Chairmen: Allan E. Gotlieb, Lorenzo Zambrano
North American Director: Michael J. O’Neil
Secretariat address: is 1156 Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005
European Chairman: Peter
European Deputy Chairmen: Hervé de Carmoy, Andrzej Olechowski
European Director: Paul Révay
secretariat address: 5, rue de Téhéran, 75008 Paris, France
telephone: 33-1: 45 61 42 80
telefax: 33-1: 45 61 42 80
email: trilateral.europe@wanadoo. fr
Pacific Asia Chairman: Yotaro
Pacific Asia Deputy Chairmen: Han Sung-Joo, Shijuro Ogata
Pacific Asia Director: Tadashi Yamamoto
secretariat address: Japan Center for International Exchange
4-9-17 Minami-Azabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106, Japan
telephone: 81-3: 3446-7781
telefax: 81-3: 3443-7580
JCIE Website: http://www.jcie.or.jp
Paul Adams, Chief Executive, British American Tobacco, London
Urban Ahlin, Member of the Swedish Parliament and Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Stockholm
Krister Ahlström, Vice Chairman, Stora Enso and Fortum; former Chairman, Finís Employers Confederation; former Chairman, Ahlström Corp., Helsinki
Edmond Alphandéry, Chairman, Caisse Nationale de Prévoyance, Paris; former Chairman, Electricité de France (EDF); former Minister of the Economy and Finance
Bodil Nyboe Andersen, Chairperson of the Board of Governors, Danmarks Nationalbank, Copenhagen
Jacques Andréani, Ambassadeur de France; former Ambassador to the United States
Stelios Argyros, Chairman and Managing Director, Preveza Mills, Athens; former Member of the European Parliament; former Vice President of UNICE, Brussels; former President and Chairman of the Board of the Federation of Greek Industries, Athens
Jerzy Baczynski, Editor-in-Chief, Polityka, Warsaw
Estela Barbot, Vice President, AGA, Porto; Vice President of the Board, AEP , Portuguese Business Association; Consul of Guatemala, Lisbon
Erik Belfrage, Senior Vice President, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken; Director, Investor AB, Stockholm
Marek Belka, Executive Secretary, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Geneva; former Prime Minister of Poland, Warsaw; former Ambassador- at-Large and Chairman, Council for International Coordination, Coalition Provisional Authority, Baghdad
Baron Jean-Pierre Berghmans, Chairman of the Executive Board, Lhoist Group, Limelette, Belgium
Georges Berthoin, International Honorary Chairman, European Movement; Honorary Chairman, The Jean Monnet Association; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris
Nicolas Beytout, Editor, Le Figaro, Paris ; former Editor, Les Echos, Paris
Carl Bildt, Chairman, Kreab Group of public affairs companies; Chairman, Nordic Venture Network, Stockholm; former Member of the Swedish Parliament, Chairman of the Moderate Party and Prime Minister of Sweden; former European Union High Representative in Bosnia-Herzegovina & UN Special Envoy to the Balkans
Ana Patricia Botin, Executive Chairman, Banesto; Vice Chairman, Urbis; Member of the Management Committee, Santander Group, Madrid
Jean-Louis Bourlanges, Member of the European Parliament (ALDE Group/UDF) and Chairman, Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs, Brussels; former President of the European Movement in France, Paris
Jorge Braga de Macedo, President, Tropical Research Institute, Lisbon; Special Advisor to the Secretary General, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris; Professor of Economics, Nova University at Lisbon; Chairman, Forum Portugal Global; former Minister of Finance
Lord Brittan of Spennithorne, Vice Chairman, UBS Investment Bank, London; former Vice President, European Commission
Robin Buchanan, Senior Partner, Bain & Company, London
François Bujon de l'Estang, Ambassadeur de France; Chairman, Citigroup France, Paris; former Ambassador to the United States
Sven Burmester, Writer and Explorer, Denmark; former Representative, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Beijing; former World Bank Deputy Secretary and Representative in Cairo
Richard Burrows, Governor, Bank of Ireland; Chairman, Irish Distillers; Non-executive Director, Pernod Ricard; former President, IBEC (The Irish Business and Employers Confederation), Dublin
*Hervé de Carmoy, Chairman, Almatis, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Partner, Rhône Group, New York & Paris; Honorary Chairman, Banque Industrielle et Mobilière Privée, Paris; former Chief Executive, Société Générale de Belgique
Antonio Carrapatoso, Chairman of the Board of Directors, Vodafone Portugal, Lisbon; Member of the Board of Directors, Vodafone Spain & Vodacom
Salvatore Carrubba, Culture Alderman, Municipality of Milan; former Managing Editor, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milan
Henri de Castries, Chairman of the Management Board and Chief Executive Officer, AXA, Paris
Jürgen Chrobog, Chairman, BMW Herbert Quandt Foundation, Munich; former German Deputy Foreign Minister and Ambassador to the United States
Luc Coene, Minister of State; Deputy Governor, National Bank of Belgium, Brussels
Sir Ronald Cohen, Founding partner and Executive Chairman, Apax Partners worldwide, London
Vittorio Colao, Chief Executive Officer, RCS MediaGroup, Milan; former Managing Director, Vodafone Omnitel
Bertrand Collomb, Chairman, Lafarge, Paris; Chairman, World Business Council for Sustainable Development
Richard Conroy, Chairman, Conroy Diamonds & Gold, Dublin; Member of Senate, Republic of Ireland
Eckhard Cordes, former Member of the Board, DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart
Alfonso Cortina, Chairman, Inmobiliaria Colonial; Chairman, Repsol-YPF Foundation, Madrid
Eduardo Costa, Executive Vice Chairman, Banco Finantia, Lisbon
Michel David-Weill, Chairman, Lazard LLC, worldwide; Managing Director and Président du Collège d'Associés-Gérants, Lazard Frères S.A.S., Paris; Deputy Chairman, Lazard Brothers & Co., Limited, London
Baron Paul De Keersmaeker, Chairman of the Board of Domo, Corgo, Foundation Europalia International and the Canada Europe Round Table, Brussels; Honorary Chairman Interbrew, KBC, Nestlé Belgilux; former Member of the Belgian and European Parliaments and of the Belgian Government
Vladimir Dlouhy, Senior Advisor, ABB; International Advisor, Goldman Sachs; former Czechoslovak Minister of Economy; former Czech Minister of Industry & Trade, Prague
Pedro Miguel Echenique, Professor of Physics, University of the Basque Country; former Basque Minister of Education, San Sebastian
*Bill Emmott, Editor, The Economist, London
Thomas Enders, Chief Executive Officer, EADS, Munich; Chairman, Atlantik-Brücke (Atlantic Bridge), Berlin
Laurent Fabius, Member of the French National Assembly and of the Foreign Affaire Committee; former Prime Minister & Minister of the Economy & Finance, Paris
Oscar Fanjul, Honorary Chairman, Repsol YPF; Vice Chairman, Omega Capital, Madrid
Grete Faremo, Former Executive Vice President, Storebrand; former Norwegian Minister of Development Cooperation, Minister of Justice and Minister of Oil and Energy, Oslo
Nemesio Fernandez-Cuesta, Executive Director of Upstream, Repsol-YPF; former Chairman, Prensa Española, Madrid
Jürgen Fitschen, Member of the Group Executive Committee, Deutsche Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main
Klaus-Dieter Frankenberger, Foreign Editor, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Frankfurt am Main
Hugh Friel, Chief Executive, Kerry Group, Dublin
Lykke Friis, Head of European Department, Federation of Danish Industries, Copenhagen
*Michael Fuchs, Member of the German Bundestag, Berlin; former President, Nacional Federation of German Wholesale & Export Traders
Lord Garel-Jones, Managing Director, UBS Investment Bank, London; Member of the House of Lords; former Minister of State at the Foreign Office (European Affairs)
Antonio Garrigues Walker, Chairman, Garrigues Abogados y Asesores Tributarios, Madrid
Wolfgang Gerhard, Member of the German Bundestag, Berlin
Lord Gilbert, Member of the House of Lords; former Minister for Defence, London
Mario Greco, Managing Director & General Manager, Assicurazioni Internazionali di Previdenza (A.I.P.), Milan
General The Lord Guthrie, Director, N M Rothschild & Sons, London; Member of the House of Lords; former Chief of the Defence Staff, London
Sirkka Hämäläinen, former Member of the Executive Board, European Central Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Governor, Bank of Finland
Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Member of the European Parliament; former Estonian Foreign Minister and Member of the Parliament; former Ambassador to the United States, Canada and Mexico
Alfonso Iozzo, Managing Director, San Paolo IMI Group, Turin
Mugur Isarescu, Governor, National Bank of Romania, Bucharest; former Prime Minister
Max Jakobson, Independent Consultant and Senior Columnist, Helsinki; former Finnish Ambassador to the United Nations; former Chairman of the Finnish Council of Economic Organizations
Baron Daniel Janssen, Chairman of the Board, Solvay, Brussels
Zsigmond Jarai, President, National Bank of Hungary, Budapest
Trinidad Jiménez, International Relations Secretary of the Socialist Party (PSOE) & Member of the Federal Executive Committee, Madrid
Béla Kadar, Member of the Hungarian Academy, Budapest; Member of the Monetary Council of the National Bank; President of the Hungarian Economic Association; former Ambassador of Hungary to the O.E.C.D., Paris; former Hungarian Minister of International Economic Relations and Member of Parliament
Robert Kassai, General Vice President, The National Association of Craftmen’s Corporations, Budapest
Lord Kerr, Member of the House of Lords; Director of Rio Tinto, Shell, and the Scottish American Investment Trust, London; former Secretary General, European Convention, Brussels; former Permanent Under-Secretary of State and Head of the Diplomatic Service, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, London; former British Ambassador to the United States
Denis Kessler, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Scor, Paris; former Chairman, French Insurance Association (FFSA); former Executive Vice-Chairman, MEDEF- Mouvement des Entreprises de France (French Employers’ Confederation)
Klaus Kleinfeld, Chief Executive Officer, Siemens, Munich
Sixten Korkman, Managing Director, Finnish Business and Policy Forum EVA, Helsinki Jiri Kunert, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Zivnostenska banka; President of the Czech Association of Banks, Prague
Count Otto Lambsdorff, Partner, Wessing Lawyers, Düsseldorf; Chairman, Friedrich Naumann Foundation, Berlin; former Member of German Bundestag; Honorary Chairman, Free Democratic Party; former Federal Minister of Economy; former President of the Liberal International; Honorary European Chairman, The Trilateral Commission, Paris
Kurt Lauk, Member of the European Parliament (EPP Group-CDU); Chairman, Globe Capital Partners, Stuttgart; President, Economic Council of the CDU Party, Berlin; former Member of the Board, DaimlerChrysler, Stuttgart
Anne Lauvergeon, Chairperson of the Executive Board, Areva; Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer, Cogema, Paris
Pierre Lellouche, Member of the French National Assembly and of the Foreign Affaire Committee, Paris; President, NATO Parliamentary Assembly
Enrico Letta, Member of the European Parliament (ALDE Group), Brussels; Secretary General, AREL; Vice President, Aspen Institute; former Minister of European Affairs, Industry, and of Industry and International Trade, Rome
André Leysen, Honorary Chairman, Gevaert, Antwerp; Honorary Chairman, Agfa- Gevaert Group
Marianne Lie, Director General, Norwegian Shipowner’s Association, Oslo
Count Maurice Lippens, Chairman, Fortis, Brussels
Helge Lund, Chief Executive Officer of the Norwegian Oil Company, Statoil, Oslo
Cees Maas, Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of the ING Group, Amsterdam; former Treasurer of the Dutch Government
Peter Mandelson, Member of the European Commission (Trade), Brussels; former Member of the British Parliament; former Secretary of State to Northern Ireland and for Trade and Industry
Abel Matutes, Chairman, Empresas Matutes, Ibiza; former Member of the European Commission, Brussels; former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Madrid
Francis Maude, Member of the British Parliament; Chairman of the Conservative Party; Director, Benfield Group; former Shadow Foreign Secretary, London
Vasco de Mello, Vice Chairman, José de Mello SGPS, Lisbon
Joao de Menezes Ferreira, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ECO-SOROS, Lisbon; former Member of the Portuguese Parliament
Peter Mitterbauer, Honorary President, The Federation of Austrian Industry, Vienna; President and Chief Executive Officer, MIBA, Laakirchen
Dominique Moïsi, Special Advisor to the Director General of the French Institute for International Relations (IFRI), Paris
Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, Chairman, Fiat, Turin; Chairman, Confindustria (Italian Confederation of Industry), Rome
Mario Monti, President and Professor Emeritus, Bocconi University, Milan; Chairman of BRUEGEL and of ECAS, Brussels; former Member of the European Comisión (Competition Policy)
Sir Mark Moody-Stuart, Chairman, Anglo American; former Chairman, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, London
Klaus-Peter Müller, Chairman of the Board of Managing Directors, Commerzbank, Frankfurt-am-Main; President, Association of German Banks (BDB), Berlin
Heinrich Neisser, former President, Politische Akademie, Vienna; Professor of Political Sciences at Innsbruck University; former Member of Austrian Parliament and Second President of the National Assembly
Harald Norvik, Chairman and Partner, ECON Management; former President and Chief Executive, Statoil, Oslo
Arend Oetker, President, German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP); Vice Chairman, Federation of German Industries; Managing Director, Dr. Arend Oetker Holding, Berlin
Andrzej Olechowski, Leader, Civic Platform; former Chairman, Bank Handlowy; former Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Finance, Warsaw
Richard Olver, Chairman, BAE Systems, London
Janusz Palikot, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Polmos Lublin; Vice President, Polish Confederation of Private Employers; Co-owner, Publishing House slowo/obraz terytoria; Member of the Board of Directors, Polish Business Council, Warsaw
Dimitry Panitza, Founding Chairman, The Free and Democratic Bulgaria Foundation; Founder and Chairman, The Bulgarian School of Politics, Sofia
Lucas Papademos, Vice President, European Central Bank, Frankfurt-am-Main; former Governor of the Bank of Greece
Schelto Patijn, Member of the Supervisory Board of the Schiphol Group and Amsterdam RAI; former Mayor of the City of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Lord Patten of Barnes, Chancellor of the University of Oxford; Chairman, International Crisis Group, Brussels; former Member of the European Commission (External Relations), Brussels; former Governor of Hong Kong; former Member of the British Cabinet, London
Volker Perthes, Director, SWP (German Institute for International and Security Affairs), Berlin
Dieter Pfundt, Personally Liable Partner, Sal. Oppenheim Bank, Frankfurt
Josep Piqué, Chairman of the Popular Party of Catalunya, Barcelona; Member of the Parliament of Catalunya; Member of the Spanish Senate; former Minister of Foreign Affairs
Benoît Potier, Chairman of the Management Board, L’Air Liquide, Paris
Alessandro Profumo, Chief Executive Officer, UniCredito Italiano, Milan
Luigi Ramponi, Member of Parliament; Chairman of the Defence Committee of the Chamber of Deputies, Rome; former Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff (Italian Army)
Wanda Rapaczynska, President of the Management Board, Agora, Warsaw
Heinz Riesenhuber, Member of the German Bundestag; former Federal Minister of Research and Technology, Berlin; Chairman of the Supervisory Boards of Kabel Deutschland and of Evotec
Gianfelice Rocca, Chairman, Techint Group of Companies, Milan; Vice President, Confindustria
H. Onno Ruding, Chairman, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels; former Vice Chairman, Citibank; former Dutch Minister of Finance
Anthony Ruys, former Chairman of the Executive Board, Heineken, Amsterdam
Ferdinando Salleo, Vice Chairman, MCC Mediocredito Centrale, Rome; former Ambassador to the United States
Jacques Santer, Honorary State Minister, Luxembourg; former Member of the European Parliament; former President of the European Commission; former Prime Minister of Luxembourg
Silvio Scaglia, Chairman, Fastweb, Milan; former Managing Director, Omnitel
Paolo Scaroni, Chief Executive Officer, ENEL, Rome
Guido Schmidt-Chiari, Chairman, Constantia Group; former Chairman, Creditanstalt Bankverein, Vienna
Henning Schulte-Noelle, Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Allianz, Munich
Prince Charles of Schwarzenberg, Founder and Director, Nadace Bohemiae, Prague; Member of the Czech Senate; former Chancellor to President Havel; former President of the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights
Carlo Secchi, Professor of European Economic Policy, Bocconi University, Milan; former Member of the Italian Senate and of the European Parliament
Toger Seidenfaden, Editor-in-Chief, Politiken, Copenhagen
Maurizio Sella, Chairman, Banca Sella, Biella; Chairman, Association of Italian Banks (A.B.I.), Rome; Chairman, Finanziaria Bansel
Slawomir S. Sikora, Chief Executive Officer and Citigroup Country Officer for Poland, Bank Handlowy w Warszawie, Warsaw
Stefano Silvestri, President, Institute for International Affairs (IAI), Rome; Commentator, Il Sole 24 Ore; former Under Secretary of State for Defence,
Lord Simon of Highbury, Member of the House of Lords; Advisory Director of Unilever, Morgan Stanley Europe and LEK; former Minister for Trade &
Competitiveness in Europe; former Chairman of BP, London
Nicholas Soames, Member of the British Parliament, London
Sir Martin Sorrell, Chief Executive Officer, WPP Group, London
Myles Staunton, Former Member of the Irish Senate & of the Dail; Consultant, Westport, Co. Mayo
Thorvald Stoltenberg, President, Norwegian Red Cross, Oslo; former Co-Chairman (UN) of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on Former Yugoslavia; former Foreign Minister of Norway; former UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Petar Stoyanov, President, Centre for Political Dialogue, Sofia; former President of Bulgaria
Peter Straarup, Chairman of the Executive Board, Danske Bank, Copenhagen; Chairman, the Danish Bankers Association
Peter Sutherland, Chairman, BP p.l.c.; Chairman, Goldman Sachs International; Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Migrations; former Director General, GATT/WTO; former Member of the European Commission; former Attorney General of Ireland
Björn Svedberg, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Ericsson, Stockholm; former President and Group Chief Executive, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
Péter Székely, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Transelektro, Budapest; President, Confederation of Hungarian Employers' Organisations for International Co-operation (CEHIC); Vice President, Confederation of Hungarian Employers and Industrialists
Pavel Telicka, Partner, BXL-Consulting, Prague
Jean-Philippe Thierry, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, AGF (Assurances Générales de France), Paris
Marco Tronchetti Provera, Chairman, Telecom Italia; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pirelli & C., Milan
Elsbeth Tronstad, Executive Vice President, ABB, Oslo
Loukas Tsoukalis, Special Adviser to the President of the European Commission; Professor at the University of Athens and the College of Europe; President of the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP), Athens
Mario Vargas Llosa, Writer and Member of the Royal Spanish Academy, Madrid
George Vassiliou, former Head of the Negotiating Team for the Accession of Cyprus to the European Union; former President of the Republic of Cyprus; former Member of Parliament and Leader of United Democrats, Nicosia
Franco Venturini, Foreign Correspondent, Corriere della Sera, Rome
Friedrich Verzetnitsch, Member of Austrian Parliament; President, Austrian Federation of Trade Unions, Vienna; President, European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
Marko Voljc, General Manager of Central Europe Directorate, KBC Bank Insurance Holding, Brussels; former Chief Executive Officer, Nova Ljubljanska Banka, Ljubljana
Alexandr Vondra, Managing Director of the Prague Office, Dutko Group Companies; former Czech Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs
Joris Voorhoeve, Member of the Council of State; former Member of the Dutch Parliament; former Minister of Defence, The Hague
Panagis Vourloumis, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hellenic Telecommunications Organization (O.T.E.), Athens
Marcus Wallenberg, Chairman of the Board, Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SEB), Stockholm
Serge Weinberg, Member and Chairman-designate of the Supervisory Board, Accor; Chairman, Weinberg Capital Partners; former Chairman of the Management Board, Pinault-Printemps-Redoute; former President, Institute of International and Strategic Studies (IRIS), Paris
Heinrich Weiss, Chairman, SMS, Düsseldorf; former President, Federation of German Industries, Berlin
Nout Wellink, President, Dutch Central Bank, Amsterdam
Arne Wessberg, Director General, YLE (Finnish Broadcasting Company) and Director General, YLE Group (YLE and Digits Oy), Helsinki; President, European Broadcasting Union (EBU)
*Norbert Wieczorek, former Member of the German Bundestag & Deputy Chairman of the SPD Parliamentary Group, Berlin
Hans Wijers, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Akzo Nobel, Arnhem
Otto Wolff von Amerongen, Honorary Chairman, East Committee of the German Industry; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Otto Wolff Industrieberatung und Beteiligung, Cologne
Emilio Ybarra, former Chairman, Banco Bilbao-Vizcaya, Madrid
Former Members in Public Service
John Bruton, European Union Ambassador & Head, Delegation of the European Commission to the United States
Lene Espersen, Minister of Justice, Denmark
Pedro Solbes, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Economy and Finances, Spain
Harri Tiido, Ambassador of Estonia and Head of the Estonian Mission to NATO, Brussels
Karsten D. Voigt, Coordinator of German-American Cooperation, Federal Foreign Ministry, Germany
NORTH AMERICAN GROUP
Madeleine K. Albright, Principal, The Albright Group LLC, Washington, DC; former U.S. Secretary of State
Graham Allison, Director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
G. Allen Andreas, Chairman and Chief Executive, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL
Michael H. Armacost, Shorenstein Distinguished Fellow, Asia/Pacific Research Center, Stanford University, Hillsborough, CA; former President, The Brookings Institution; former U.S. Ambassador to Japan; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
Richard L. Armitage, President, Armitage International LLC, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State
James L. Balsillie, Chairman and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Research in Motion, Ltd., Waterloo, ON
Charlene Barshefsky, Senior International Partner, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative
Alan R. Batkin, Vice Chairman, Kissinger Associates, New York, NY
Doug Bereuter, President, The Asia Foundation, San Francisco, CA; former Member, U.S. House of Representatives
*C. Fred Bergsten, Director, Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs
Catherine Bertini, Professor of Public Administration, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY; former Under-Secretary- General for Management, United Nations
Dennis C. Blair, USN (Ret.), President and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA; former Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command
Herminio Blanco Mendoza, Private Office of Herminio Blanco, Mexico City, NL; former Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Development
Geoffrey T. Boisi, Chairman & Senior Partner, Roundtable Investment Partners LLC, ew York, NY; ormer Vice Chairman, JPMorgan Chase, New York, NY
Stephen W. Bosworth, Dean, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, edford, MA; former U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Korea
David G. Bradley, Chairman, Atlantic Media Company, Washington, DC
Harold Brown, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, C; General Partner, Warburg Pincus & Company, New York, NY; former U.S. Secretary of Defense
*Zbigniew Brzezinski, Counselor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; Robert Osgood Professor of American Foreign Affairs, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University; former U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
Louis C. Camilleri, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Altria Group, Inc., New York, NY
Raymond Chrétien, Strategic Advisor, Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, Montreal, QC; Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Center for International Studies of the University of Montreal; former Associate Under-Secretary of State of External Affairs; former Ambassador of Canada to the Congo, Belgium, Mexico, the United States and France
William T. Coleman III, Founder, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer, Cassatt Corporation; Founder, former Chairman and CEO and Member, Board of Directors, BEA Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA
William T. Coleman, Jr., Senior Partner and the Senior Counselor, O’Melveny & Myers, Washington, DC; former U.S. Secretary of Transportation
Timothy C. Collins, Senior Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Ripplewood Holdings, New York, NY
Richard N. Cooper, Maurits C. Boas Professor of International Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chairman, U.S. National Intelligence Council; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
E. Gerald Corrigan, Managing Director, Goldman, Sachs & Co., New York, NY; former President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Michael J. Critelli, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pitney Bowes Inc., Stamford, CT
Lee Cullum, former regular commentator, "NewsHour with Jim Lehrer," and columnist, Dallas, TX
Gerald L. Curtis, Burgess Professor of Political Science, Columbia University, New York, NY; Visiting Professor, Graduate Research Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo
Douglas Daft, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Coca Cola Company, Atlanta, GA
Lynn Davis, Senior Political Scientist, The RAND Corporation, Arlington, VA; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security
Lodewijk J. R. de Vink, Chairman, Global Health Care Partners, Peapack, NJ; former Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer, Warner-Lambert Company
Arthur A. DeFehr, President and Chief Executive Officer, Palliser Furniture, Winnipeg, MB
André Desmarais, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, Power Corporation of Canada, Montréal, QC; Deputy Chairman, Power Financial Corporation
John M. Deutch, Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA; former Director of Central Intelligence; former U.S. Deputy
Secretary of Defense
Jamie Dimon, President and Chief Executive Officer, JPMorgan Chase & Co., New York, NY
Peter C. Dobell, Founding Director, Parliamentary Centre, Ottawa, ON
Wendy K. Dobson, Professor and Director, Institute for International Business, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; former
Canadian Associate Deputy Minister of Finance
Kenneth M. Duberstein, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Duberstein Group, Washington, DC
Robert Eckert, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mattel, Inc., El Segundo, CA
Jeffrey Epstein, President, J. Epstein & Company, Inc., New York, NY; President, N.A. Property, Inc.
Dianne Feinstein, Member (D-CA), U.S. Senate
Martin S. Feldstein, George F. Baker Professor of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; President and Chief Executive Officer, National Bureau of Economic Research; former U.S.Chairman, President’s Council of Economic Advisors
Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., Vice Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC
Stanley Fischer, Governor of the Bank of Israel, Jerusalem; former President, Citigroup International and Vice Chairman, Citgroup, New York, NY; former First Deputy Managing Director, International Monetary Fund
Richard W. Fisher, President and Chief Executive Officer, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, Dallas, TX; former U.S. Deputy Trade Representative
*Thomas S. Foley, Partner, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, Washington, DC; former U.S. Ambassador to Japan; former Speaker of the U.S. House of
Representatives; North American Chairman, Trilateral Commission
Michael B.G. Froman, Managing Director, Chief Operating Officer and Head of Strategy and Business Development, Citigroup Alternative Investments, Citigroup Inc., New York, NY
Francis Fukuyama, Bernard L. Schwartz Professor International Political Economy, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC
Dionisio Garza Medina, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, ALFA, Garza Garcia, NL
Richard A. Gephardt, former Member (D-MO), U.S. House of Representatives
David Gergen, Professor of Public Service, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Editor-at-Large, U.S. News and World Report
Peter C. Godsoe, Chairman of Fairmont Hotels & Resorts; Retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Scotiabank, Toronto, ON
Allan E. Gotlieb, Senior Advisor, Stikeman Elliott, Toronto, ON; Chairman, Sotheby’s, Canada; former Canadian Ambassador to the United States; North American Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
Donald E. Graham, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Washington Post Company, Washington, DC
Jeffrey W. Greenberg, Private Investor, New York, NY; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Marsh & McLennan Companies
Maurice R. Greenberg, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, C. V. Starr & Company, New York; former Chairman, American International Group, Inc.
Richard N. Haass, President, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, NY; former Director, Policy Planning, U. S. Department of State; former Director of Foreign Policy Studies, The Brookings Institution
John J. Hamre, President, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense and Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
William A. Haseltine, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Haseltine Associates, Washington, DC; President, William A. Haseltine Foundation for Medical Sciences and the Arts; former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Human Genome Sciences, Inc., Rockville, MD
Charles B. Heck, Senior Adviser and former North American Director, Trilateral Commission, New Canaan, CT
Carla A. Hills, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Hills & Company, International Consultants, Washington, DC; former U.S. Trade Representative; former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Richard Holbrooke, Vice Chairman, Perseus LLC, New York, NY; Counselor, Council on Foreign Relations; former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; former Vice Chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston Corporation; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs; and former U.S. Ambassador to Germany
Karen Elliott House, Senior Vice President, Dow Jones & Company, and Publisher, The Wall Street Journal, New York, NY
Alejandro Junco de la Vega, President and Director, Grupo Reforma, Monterrery, NL
Robert Kagan, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DC
Arnold Kanter, Principal and Founding Member, The Scowcroft Group, Washington, DC; former U.S. Under Secretary of State
Charles R. Kaye, Co-President, Warburg Pincus LLC, New York, NY
Henry A. Kissinger, Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc., New York, NY; former U.S. ecretary of State; former U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
Michael Klein, Chief Executive Officer, Global Banking, Citigroup Inc.; Vice Chairman, Citibank International PLC; New York, NY
Steven E. Koonin, Chief Scientist, BP, London, UK
Enrique Krauze, General Director, Editorial Clio Libros y Videos, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, DF
Robert Lane, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Deere & Co., Moline, IL
Jim Leach, Member (R-IA), U.S. House of Representatives
Gerald M. Levin, Chief Executive Officer Emeritus, AOL Time Warner, Inc., New York, NY
Winston Lord, Co-Chairman of Overseeers and former Co-Chairman of the Board, International Rescue Committee, New York, NY; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs; former U.S. Ambassador to China
E. Peter Lougheed, Senior Partner, Bennett Jones, Barristers & Solicitors, Calgary, AB; former Premier of Alberta
Roy MacLaren, former Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom; former Canadian Minister of International Trade; Toronto, ON
John A. MacNaughton, former President and Chief Executive Officer, Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, Toronto, ON
Antonio Madero, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, San Luis Corporacion, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, DF
John Manley, Senior Counsel, McCarthy Tétrault LLP, Ottawa, ON; former Canadian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance
Sir Deryck C. Maughan, Managing Director and Chairman, KKR Asia, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., New York, NY; former Vice Chairman, Citigroup
Jay Mazur, President Emeritus, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees); Vice Chairman, Amalgamated Bank of New York; and President, ILGWU's 21 st Century Heritage Foundation, New York, NY
Hugh L. McColl, Jr., Chairman, McColl Brothers Lockwood, Charlotte, NC; former Chairman and Chief Exeutive Officer, Bank of America Corporation Marc H. Morial, President and Chief Executive Officer, National Urban League, New York, NY; former Mayor, New Orleans, LA
Heather Munroe-Blum, Principal and Vice-Chancellor, McGill University, Montreal, QC
Anne M. Mulcahy, Chairman and CEO, Xerox Corporation, Stamford, CT
Brian Mulroney, Senior Partner, Ogilvy Renault, Barristers and Solicitors, Montréal, QC; former Prime Minister of Canada
Indra K. Nooyi, President and Chief Financial Officer, PepsiCo, Inc., Purchase, NY
Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
David J. O'Reilly, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, CA
Richard N. Perle, Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC; member and former Chairman, Defense Policy Board, U.S. Department of Defense; former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy
Thomas R. Pickering, Senior Vice President, International Relations, The Boeing Company, Arlington, VA; former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs; former U.S. Ambassador to the Russian Federation, India, Israel, El Salvador, Nigeria, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and the United Nations
Martha C. Piper, President and Vice-Chancellor, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
Joseph W. Ralston, USAF (Ret)., Vice Chairman, The Cohen Group, Washington, DC; former Commander, U.S. European Command, and Supreme Allie
Commander NATO; former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Department of Defense
Charles B. Rangel, Member (D-NY), U.S. House of Representatives
Susan Rice, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs; former Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for African Affairs, National Security Council
Hartley Richardson, President and Chief Executive Officer, James Richardson & Sons, Ltd., Winnipeg, MB
Joseph E. Robert, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Office, J.E. Robert Companies, McLean, VA
John D. Rockefeller IV, Member (D-WV), U.S. Senate
Kenneth Rogoff, Professor of Economics and Director, Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chief Economist and Director, Research Department, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC
Charles Rose, Host of the Charlie Rose Show and Charlie Rose Special Edition, PBS,
New York, NY
David M. Rubenstein, Co-founder and Managing Director, The Carlyle Group, Washington, DC
Luis Rubio, President, Center of Research for Development (CIDAC), Mexico City, DF
Jaime Serra, Chairman, SAI Consulting, Mexico City, DF; former Mexican Minister of Trade and Industry
Dinakar Singh, Founder and Chief Executive Officer, TPG-Axon Capital, New York, NY; former Co-head, Principal Strategies Department, Goldman Sachs
Anne-Marie Slaughter, Dean, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Gordon Smith, Director, Centre for Global Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC; Chairman, Board of Governors, International Development Research Centre; former Canadian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Personal Representative of the Prime Minister to the Economic Summit
Donald R. Sobey, Chairman Emeritus, Empire Company Ltd., Halifax, NS
Ronald D. Southern, Chairman, ATCO Group, Calgary, AB
James B. Steinberg, Dean, LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of Texas, Austin, TX; former Vice President and Director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy National Security Advisor
Jessica Stern, Lecturer in Public Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Barbara Stymiest, Chief Operating Officer, RBC Financial Group, Toronto, ON
Lawrence H. Summers, President, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
John J. Sweeney, President, AFL-CIO, Washington, DC
Strobe Talbott, President, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC; former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State
Luis Tellez, Managing Director, The Carlyle Group, Mexico City, DF; former Executive Vice President, Sociedad de Fomento Industrial (DESC); former Mexican Minister of Energy
George J. Tenet, Distinguished Professor, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, Washington, DC; former U.S. Director of Central Intelligence
John Thain, Chief Executive Officer, New York Stock Exchange, Inc.; former President and Co-Chief Operating Officer, Goldman Sachs & Co., New York, NY
G. Richard Thoman, Managing Partner, Corporate Perspectives and Adjunct Professor, Columbia University, New York, NY; former President and Chief
Executive Officer, Xerox Corporation; former Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, IBM Corporation
*Paul A. Volcker, former Chairman, Wolfensohn & Co., Inc., New York; Frederick H. Schultz Professor Emeritus, International Economic Policy, Princeton University; former Chairman, Board of Governors, U.S. Federal Reserve System; Honorary North American Chairman and former North American Chairman, Trilateral Commission
William H. Webster, Senior Partner, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP, Washington, DC; former U.S. Director of Central Intelligence; former Director, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation; former Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
Fareed Zakaria, Editor, Newsweek International, New York, NY
Lorenzo H. Zambrano, Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, CEMEX, Monterrey, NL; North American Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
Ernesto Zedillo, Director, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University, New Haven, CT; former President of Mexico
Mortimer B. Zuckerman, Chairman and Editor-in-Chief, U.S. News & World Report, New York, NY
Robert S. McNamara, Lifetime Trustee, Trilateral Commission, Washington, DC; former President, World Bank; former U.S. Secretary of Defense; former President, Ford Motor Company.
David Rockefeller, Founder, Honorary Chairman, and Lifetime Trustee, Trilateral Commission, New York, NY
Former Members In Public Service
Rona Ambrose, Canadian Minister of the Environment
Richard B. Cheney, Vice President of the United States
Paula J. Dobriansky, U.S. Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs
Bill Graham, Leader of the Opposition, Canadian House of Commons
Paul Wolfowitz, President, World Bank
Robert B. Zoellick, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State
PACIFIC ASIAN GROUP
Narongchai Akrasanee, Chairman, Seranee Holdings Co., Ltd., Bangkok
Ali Alatas, Advisor and Special Envoy of the President of the Republic of Indonesia; former Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs; Jakarta
Philip Burdon, former Chairman, Asia 2000 Foundation; New Zealand Chairman, APEC; former New Zealand Minister of Trade Negotiations; Wellington
Fujio Cho, President, Toyota Motor Corporation
Cho Suck-Rai, Chairman, Hyosung Corporation, Seoul
Chung Mong-Joon, Member, Korean National Assembly; Vice President, Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA); Seoul
Barry Desker, Director, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Nanyang Techonological University, Singapore
Takashi Ejiri, Attorney at Law, Asahi Koma Law Office
Jesus P. Estanislao, President and Chief Executive Officer, Institute of Corporate Directors/Institute of Solidarity in Asia, Manila; former Philippine Minister of Finance
Hugh Fletcher, Director, Fletcher Building, Ltd., Auckland; former Chief Executive Officer, Fletcher Challenge
Hiroaki Fujii, Advisor, The Japan Foundation; former Japanese Ambassador to the United Kingdom
Shinji Fukukawa, Executive Advisor, Dentsu Inc.
Yoichi Funabashi, Chief Diplomatic Correspondent and Columnist, The Asahi Shimbun
Carrillo Gantner, Vice President, The Myer Foundation; Melbourne
Ross Garnaut, Professor of Economics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra
*Toyoo Gyohten, President, Institute for International Monetary Affairs; Senior Advisor, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd.
Han Sung-Joo, President, Seoul Forum for International Affairs; Professor, International Relations, Ilmin International Relations Institute, Korea University,
Seoul; former Korean Minister of Foreign Affairs; former Korean Ambassador to the United States;
*Stuart Harris, Professor of International Relations, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra; former Australian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs
Azman Hashim, Chairman, AmBank Group, Kuala Lumpur
John R. Hewson, Member, Advisory Council, ABN AMRO Australia, Sydney
Ernest M. Higa, President and CEO, Higa Industries
Shintaro Hori, Managing Partner, Bain & Company Japan, Inc.
Murray Horn, Managing Director, Institutional Banking, ANZ (NZ) Ltd., Sydney; Chairman, ANZ Investment Bank; former Parliament Secretary, New Zealand Treasury
Hyun Hong-Choo, Senior Partner, Kim & Chang, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador to the United Nations and to the United States; Seoul
Hyun Jae-Hyun, Chairman, Tong Yang Group, Seoul
Shin’ichi Ichimura, Counselor, International Centre for the Study of East Asian Development, Kitakyushu
Nobuyuki Idei, Chief Corporate Advisor, Sony Corporation
Takeo Inokuchi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Company, Ltd.
Noriyuki Inoue, Chairman and CEO, Daikin Industries, Ltd.
Rokuro Ishikawa, Honorary Chairman, Kajima Corporation
Motoo Kaji, Professor Emeritus, University of Tokyo
Kasem Kasemsri, Honorary Chairman, Thailand-U.S. Business Council, Bangkok; Chairman, Advisory Board, Chart Thai Party; Chairman, Thai-Malaysian
Association; former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand
Koichi Kato, Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Secretary-General, Liberal Democratic Party
Trevor Kennedy, Chairman, Oil Search, Ltd.; Chairman, Cypress Lakes Group, Ltd.; Sydney
K. Kesavapany, Director, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore
Kim Kihwan, International Advisor, Goldman Sachs, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador-at-Large for Economic Affairs
Kim Kyung-Won, President Emeritus, Seoul Forum for International Affairs, Seoul; former Korean Ambassador to the United States and the United Nations; Advisor, Kim & Chang Law Office; Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
Kakutaro Kitashiro, Chairman of the Board, IBM Japan, Ltd.
Shoichiro Kobayashi, Senior Advisor, Kansai Electric Power Company, Ltd.
*Yotaro Kobayashi, Chairman of the Board, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.; Pacific Asia Chairman, Trilateral Commission
Akira Kojima, Chairman, Japan Center for Economic Research ( JCER )
Koo John, Chairman, LS Cable Ltd.; Chairman, LS Industrial Systems Co.; Seoul
Kenji Kosaka, Member, Japanese House of Representatives
Lee Hong-Koo, Chairman, Seoul Forum for International Affairs, Seoul; former Korean Prime Minister; former Korean Ambassador to the United Kingdom and the United States
Lee In-ho, University Professor, Myongji University, Seoul; former President, Korea Foundation; former Korean Ambassador to Finland and Russia
Lee Jay Y., Vice President, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Seoul
Lee Kyungsook Choi, President, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul
Adrianto Machribie, Chairman, PT Freeport Indonesia, Jakarta
*Minoru Makihara, Senior Corporate Advisor, Mitsubishi Corporation
Hiroshi Mikitani, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Rakuten, Inc.
Yoshihiko Miyauchi, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, ORIX Corporation
Isamu Miyazaki, Special Advisor, Daiwa Institute of Research, Ltd.; former Director- General of the Japanese Economic Planning Agency
Kiichi Miyazawa, former Prime Minister of Japan; former Finance Minister; former Member, House of Representatives
Yuzaburo Mogi, President and Chief Executive Officer, Kikkoman Corporation
Mike Moore, former Director-General, World Trade Organization, Geneva; Member, New Zealand Privy Council, Auckland; former Prime Minister of New Zealand
Moriyuki Motono, President, Foreign Affairs Society; former Japanese Ambassador to France
Jiro Murase, Managing Partner, Bingham McCutchen Murase, New York
*Minoru Murofushi, Counselor, ITOCHU Corporation
Masao Nakamura, President and Chief Executive Officer, NTT Docomo Inc.
Masashi Nishihara, President, National Defense Academy
Taizo Nishimuro, Advisor, former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Toshiba Corporation
Roberto F. de Ocampo, President, Asian Institute of Management; former Secretary of Finance, Manila
Toshiaki Ogasawara, Chairman and Publisher, The Japan Times Ltd.; Chairman, Nifco Inc.
Sadako Ogata, President, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA); former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
*Shijuro Ogata, former Deputy Governor, Japan Development Bank; former Deputy Governor for International Relations, Bank of Japan; Pacific Asia Deputy Chairman, Trilateral Commission
Sozaburo Okamatsu, Chairman, Research Institute of Economy, Trade & Industry (RIETI)
Yoshio Okawara, President, Institute for International Policy Studies; former Japanese Ambassador to the United States
Yoichi Okita, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
Ariyoshi Okumura, Chairman, Lotus Corporate Advisory, Inc.
Anand Panyarachun, Chairman, Thai Industrial Federation; Chairman, Saha-Union Public Company, Ltd.; former Prime Minister of Thailand; Bangkok
Ryu Jin Roy, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Poongsan Corp., Seoul
Eisuke Sakakibara, Professor, Keio University; former Japanese Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs
SaKong Il, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Institute for Global Economics, Seoul; former Korean Minister of Finance
Yukio Satoh, President, The Japan Institute of International Affairs; former Japanese Ambassador to the United Nations
Sachio Semmoto, Chief Executive Officer, eAccess, Ltd.
Masahide Shibusawa, President, Shibusawa Ei’ichi Memorial Foundation
Seiichi Shimada, President and Chief Executive Officer, Nihon Unisys, Ltd.
Yasuhisa Shiozaki, Member, Japanese House of Representatives; former Parliamentary Vice Minister for Finance
Arifin Siregar, International Advisor, Goldman Sachs (Pacific Asia) LLC; former Ambassador of Indonesia to the United States; Jakarta
Noordin Sopiee, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Institute of Strategic and International Studies, Kuala Lumpur
Suh Kyung-Bae, President and Chief Executive Officer, Amore Pacific Corp., Seoul
Tsuyoshi Takagi, President, The Japanese Foundation of Textile, Chemical, Food, Commercial, Service and General Workers’ Unions (UI ZENSEN)
Keizo Takemi, Member, Japanese House of Councillors; former State Secretary for Foreign Affairs
Akihiko Tanaka, Director, Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo
Naoki Tanaka, President, The 21st Century Public Policy Institute
Sunjoto Tanudjaja, President and Chief Executive Officer, PT Great River International, Jakarta
Teh Kok Peng, President, GIC Special Investments Private Ltd., Singapore
Shuji Tomita, Senior Executive Vice President, NTT Communications Corporation
Kiyoshi Tsugawa, Executive Advisor & Member of Japan Advisory Board, Lehman Brothers Japan, Inc.; Chairman, ARAMARK ASIA
Junichi Ujiie, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Nomura Holdings, Inc.
Sarasin Viraphol, Executive Vice President, Charoen Pokphand Co., Ltd., Bangkok; former Deputy Permanent Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Thailand
Cesar E. A. Virata, Corporate Vice Chairman and Acting Chief Executive Officer, Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC), Manila; former Prime Minister of Philippines
*Jusuf Wanandi, Member, Board of Trustees, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta
Etsuya Washio, President, National Federation of Workers and Consumers Insurance Cooperatives (ZENROSAI); former President, Japanese Trade Union Confederation (RENGO)
Koji Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Japan Center for International Exchange; former Japanese Ambassador to Russia
Osamu Watanabe, Chairman, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)
Taizo Yakushiji, Executive Member, Council for Science and Technology Policy of the Cabinet Office of Japan; Executive Research Director, Institute for International Policy Studies
Tadashi Yamamoto, President, Japan Center for International Exchange; Pacific Asia Director, Trilateral Commission
Noriyuki Yonemura, Consultant, Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
Note: Those without city names are Japanese Members.
Korean names are shown with surname first.
Former Members in Public Service
Hong Seok-Hyun, Korean Ambassador to the United States
Masaharu Ikuta, Director General, Postal Services Corporation.
Yoriko Kawaguchi, Special Advisor to the Prime Minister of Japan
Hisashi Owada, Judge, International Court of Justice
Takeshi Kondo, President, Japan Highway Public Corporation (Nihon Doro Kodan)
PARTICIPANTS FROM OTHER AREAS
Abdlatif Al-Hamad, Director General and Chairman, Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development; former Kuwait Minister of Finance and Planning
André Azoulay, Adviser to H.M. King Mohammed VI, Rabat
Morris Chang, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Taipei
Omar Davies, Member of the Jamaican Parliament and Minister of Finance and Planning, Kingston; former Director General, Planning Institute of Jamaica
Hüsnü Dogan, General Coordinator, Nurol Holding, Ankara; former Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Development Foundation of Turkey; former Minister of Defence
Alejandro Foxley, Member of the Senate and former Chairman of the Finance Committee and the Joint Budget Committee, Chilean Congress, Valparaiso
Jacob A. Frenkel, Vice Chairman, American International Group, Inc. and Chairman, AIG's Global Economic Strategies Group, New York, NY; Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, G-30; former Chairman, Merrill Lynch International; former Governor, Bank of Israel; former Economic Counselor and Director of Research, IMF; former Chairman, Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank; former David Rockefeller Professor of Economics, University of Chicago
Victor K. Fung, Chairman, Li & Fung; Chairman, Prudential Asia Ltd., Hong Kong
Frene Ginwala, Speaker of the National Assembly, Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, Cape Town
H.R.H. Prince El Hassan bin Talal, President, The Club of Rome; Moderator of the World Conference on Religion and Peace; Chairman, Arab Thought Forum, Amman
Ricardo Hausman, Professor of the Practice of Economic Development, Center for International Development, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; former Chief Economist, Inter-American Development Bank; former Venezuelan Minister of Planning and Member of the Board of the Central Bank of Venezuela
Serhiy Holovaty, Member of the Supreme Rada; President of the Ukrainian Legal Foundation; former Minister of Justice, Kiev
Sergei Karaganov, Deputy Director, Institute of Europe, Russian Academy of Sciences; Chairman of the Presidium of the Council on Defense and Foreign Policy, Moscow
Jeffrey L.S. Koo, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Chinatrust Investment, Bank, Taipei
Richard Li, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Pacific Century Group Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong
Ricardo Lopez Murphy, Visiting Research Fellow, Latin American Economic Research Foundation, Buenos Aires; former Argentinian Finance Minister and Defence Minister
Andrónico Luksic Craig, Vice Chairman, Banco de Chile, Santiago
Itamar Rabinovich, President, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv; former Ambassador to the United States
Rüsdü Saracoglu, President of the Finance Group, Koç Holding; Chairman, Makro Consulting, Istanbul; former State Minister and Member of the Turkish Parliament; former Governor of the Central Bank of Turkey
Roberto Egydio Setubal, President and Chief Executive Officer, Banco Itaú S.A. and Banco Itaú Holding Financiera S.A., Sao Paulo
Stan Shih, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Acer Group, Taipei
Gordon Wu, Chairman and Managing Director, Hopewell Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong
Grigory A. Yavlinsky, former Member of the State Duma; Leader of the “Yabloko” Parliamentary Group; Chairman of the Center for Economic and Political Research, Moscow
Yu Xintian, President, Shanghai Institute for International Studies, Shanghai
Yuan Ming, Director, Institute of International Relations, Peking University, Beijing
Zhang Yunling, Director, Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), Beijing
Wang Jisi, Dean, School of International Studies, Peking University, Beijing